Corella is a parrot with a body of 310-330 mm in length. The length of its wing is 170-180 mm, the tail is 165-175 mm.
Approximate body weight - 110-120 g.Corellians have a large beak, which in appearance resembles the beak of the parrot Kakadu. The beak is weaker than this bird, but it is still strong enough: the corella is able to crack nuts and various fruits.The wings of Corellа parrot are long, sharp, with long feathers (the longest is the second feather). The tail is also long, has a wedge shape, the longest are feathers. Paws of the parrot are rather weak.A distinctive feature of the Corellа parrot is the protruding feathers of the head, forming a small pointed tuft.In addition to the tuft, these parrots distinguish a beautiful plumage. In nature, gray-brown birds with feathers of pure gray on the abdomen are most often encountered.
View of Corella
Feathers of the tuft, the upper part of the head, cheeks and bridles are yellowish-strawy, and around the ears there are bright pinkish-red spots. The tips of the tuft are grayish. Flight feathers velvet gray, with feathers dark brown color. The lower part of the wing is painted black. The tail feathers are black below the bottom, which turns to ash gray on the inner edges. The tail feathers of the tail are also painted in an ash gray color, which is slightly darker in the lower part.The beak of parrots is grayish-black, at the base it is painted in brown color, gray waxen. The eyes is dark brown.The skin of the legs of the bird has a brownish-gray hue.In order to distinguish the female from the male, it is necessary to take a closer look at the shade of the feathers. The female has a lighter plumage in the upper part of the body and a reddish tint in the lower part. The spots on the head are less bright, reddish-brown in color, and the head are not strawy, but dirty-yellow.In addition, there is an even more significant difference: on the territory of the fan feathers of feathers, you can open 4-5 yellow Round spots. The tail feathers are pale yellow, with black transverse bands, on the other feathers there are transverse patches, but not so pronounced.Young birds, even males, are more similar in color to females, but the stains on their heads are not red, but brownish and brighter.The color of the Сorella can be different .Young males acquire a permanent color of adult birds at the age of 10-12 months.However, the described color, although it is the most common, is not necessary. So, white Corellas are known to have been born as a result of mutation. In addition, in the Czech Republic were removed birds with a so-called necklace on the neck.
Colors and mutations
To understand the theory of the so-called "mutation", you need to understand how important and unique are the usual gray parrots of Corella. These are birds that are called "wild" birds. They are not a mutation.What is a mutation?Mutation is the result of the failure or alteration of the work of the original gene, which then begins to act differently and thus changing its color. Genes that give us any other color that is different from ordinary gray are the mutation genes. Each individual mutation is the result of the work of only one gene, which has been modified from the thousands of others that exist in any organism. No one can say the exact reason why any gene mutates from the original form and begins to act differently, but this happens not only in captivity, but also in the wild. Due to natural selection in the wild, new mutations are usually never seen. In captivity, we have the ability to selectively multiply birds that are mutations, and thus create more of them.
Ordinary gray (natural) Corella
Having studied that such a mutation becomes obvious, how important is the natural color of the corella. Each gene of this bird is original and works fine. There are no mutation genes that can change the original. This is what makes a natural corella even more valuable when we start creating new mutations. Such a corella has excellent genes, through which it is possible to multiply, it is possible to improve mutational genes, give normal and healthy birds of different colors.The natural male of Corella is a dark gray, almost black bird with a yellow mask and bright orange cheeks. Feathers on the body are clean, not mottled, dark gray without signs of spots or striae. If a bird carries a gene or is split into it, it can somehow visually manifest itself.
The natural female of the corolla is of the same color as the male, it differs only in an insufficiently bright mask. It still carries a normal gene, but in females the place of a bright yellow mask remains gray, sometimes with a yellowish blush. In females the color of the plumage is the same as that of the chicks. The cheeks become more orange with time, as the bird grows up. Before molting chicks males look the same as females, but only after it a bird becomes apparent to some sex.One of the differences between females and males, of course, besides the yellow mask is the absence of bands on the tail and on the wings. During the first moult, the males lose their plumage during the change of plumage. These signs remain in females. Thus, the natural corella is referred to as dimorphic. Sexual dimorphism means that males and females have differences in plumage. The brightness of a mask or strip is an example of this.
Such a mutation of the corylla as Lutino is a sex-linked recessive mutation. Birds of the color of Lutino seem to stand out from a crowd of other colors - bright yellow, devoid of any other tones, except orange cheeks. These signs make them just stunning birds. In addition, red eyes, which are so different from ordinary dark, give them a unique look.Lutino - color, which is quite difficult to visually determine the sex of the bird, sometimes the differences between the sexes are so thin that they can not be distinguished. Differences in females and males are the same as in natural cattle: strips at the tail and points on the feathers remain only in females.This mutation can be combined with pearl, cinnamon and white-faced mutations.A negative feature of this color is the bald patch behind the tuft. Fortunately, thanks to the correct selection of pairs and breeding this feature disappears. Instances began to appear, for which it does not exist at all.Lutino gene is called sex-linked recessive. This gene successfully prevents the production of gray pigment or melanin. It is easy to recognize among many other genes.If you take and imagine a normal, natural corella and wash off the entire gray color, then you can see a lutino mutation.Lutino gene in the corella is an alternative to the albino gene in mammals. They have this gene characterized by red eyes and white color, since such a pigment as melanin is completely absent. Lutino has the same effect. The reason why we do not get a pure white bird is that birds have more than one form of pigment, as in mammals. Birds have two kinds of pigments melanin (gray) and lipochrom (yellow). To get a white bird you need to eliminate both pigments, but there is no gene that can do it. Of course, there are ways to get a white corolla. For this, it is worth combining the Lutino gene, which removes the gray pigment and the white-faced gene, which removes the yellow. Thus, the albino in the corals is genetically white-lyutino.Now we turn to the technical part of inheritance, or how the corella can be lutino, what parents can be. A term like a recessive sex-linked gene will be explained here.Most people know that each person has a pair of chromosomes that make us look like ourselves. Also, most people know that the XX chromosomes are in girls and XY in boys. In birds, on the contrary, XY of the chromosome is found in females, and XX in males.Lutino gene is a gene that is on the sex chromosome or X. Y chromosome, which is found in females, is too short to fit any wild type genes that could suppress or protrude genes on the X chromosome. Thus, if the X chromosome of the female will carry the lutino gene, then it will visually be lutino, because on its Y chromosome there are no genes that could suppress this gene. The males also have two X chromosomes. If the lutino gene has only one chromosome on it, then the ordinary wild-type gene will simply cover it and prevent it from being visible. However, if on one of the chromosomes he had a lutino gene, and on the second there would be nothing that would prevent this gene from being visible, then such a male will visually look like a lutino.
Thus, if you have a pair of birds that have small corellata, then one can say that each of the parents passed one of the chromosomes to their chick. In males, there are only two X, that is, it can only transmit the X chromosome, whereas the female can transmit X or Y (remember that only the X chromosome can carry the lutino gene). Therefore, if she passes X to the chromosome, then the chick will have two X and will be a boy. If the mother passes the Y chromosome, the chick will have XY and will be a girl.That is, we can see that if a chick gets the X chromosome from the mother, then only it can carry any sex-related genes from it, since the Y genes do not contain. From this it follows that the female chicks can not carry any genes from the mother, since they transmit the Y chromosome.Imagine that we have a female Lutino and an ordinary gray male. The pope will give all his chicks a normal gene, and mom will give to her sons X with a lutino gene and Y, which does not contain genes, to her daughters. Thus, each male will have a normal and lutino gene. Lutino will be suppressed by normal genes and will not appear visually. We call such a bird split into Lutino. She will be able to give normal and lutino chicks if she passes this gene to her daughter, who will be a visual lutino.
The motley gene in the corellas is responsible for placing the colored pigments in a random order. This pattern may vary for different birds. People often make the mistake of believing that patches of gray or other suitable color are variegated. This is not true. In fact, the work of this gene is white or yellow, and gray is the main one.Motley with light variegation is called the birds, in which the greater part of the body is occupied by normal color, and the smaller part is yellow or white. Under normal, there is a basic color, ie gray, cinnamon or others. With a strong variegation, the greater part of the body is occupied by variegated areas, and the smaller is the primary color.Technically speaking, birds with light variegation should have 25% of variegated patches and 75% of the primary color. Accordingly, birds with strong variegation should have 75% of variegated patches and 25% of the primary color. Naturally, much depends on the color of the bird. White-faced cocks will have mottled white patches, not yellow.An ideal specimen of a motley bird should be a corella with 25% of the main color, without dark feathers on the mask, tail and wings. Birds with dark feathers on their heads are called "dirty-faced" variegated.You can also hear such terms as "Reverse" and "Pure" mottled. Reverse motley is a motley, which has very few areas of the primary color and many areas of white or yellow. In pure motley, the variegated gene completely prevents the development of a dark pigment. Such birds visually look like lutino or white lutino (depending on the main color). You can distinguish between these two mutations using eye color. The motley mutation does not change their color, so the motley bird will have dark eyes, while in the lutino / albino the eyes will be red. For example, variegated cinnamon will be a yellow bird with black eyes, and lutino will be a yellow bird with red eyes.
Explaining the actions of the motley gene on a normal bird, we can proceed to other visual aspects of the work of this gene.The motley gene in the cores is called recessive ADM, that is, the recessive Anti-Dimorph. Do not panic because of this description, it's pretty simple to explain. Antidimorphism means that there are no visual differences between males and females. For example, a yellow mask in a natural corella means that the bird is a male. At motley birds with a yellow mask can be both females, and males. Also, the strips on the tail are not signs, they can be absent in females and can be found in males. Of course, speaking of the yellow mask, we had in mind not white-faced corelles, in which she, respectively, may be white.The fact that the bird is mottled can be determined at a very early age. In motley chicks in the tuft begin to grow white (if the bird is white-bellied) or yellow feathers.
Variegated - a recessive mutation. That is, one motley gene is not enough for a bird to be visually variegated. For this, the chick should get this gene from both the mother and the father. Keep in mind that all genes are on the chromosomes of birds, and each chromosome goes in pairs. Each gene is located on a chromosome in a specific place and if the gene for some reason is not present in its normal place, then these "holes" are filled with wild-type genes. In order for the corella to be visually variegated, there must be two genes. If the corolla has only one motley gene and it will be on one of the chromosomes, then on the second chromosome there will be a normal gene or a wild type gene. Since the normal gene is dominant, it will interfere with the appearance of a single motley gene. Such a bird can be considered split into variegated.
However, if the motley gene is present on both chromosomes, the motley effect will be visible, since there is no overwhelming, normal gene.However, many of you will now say: "My bird is split in motley and there are spots on the back of the head." And this is true! A bird that has only one mottled gene can be called heterozygous and may have variegated places. In the heterozygous state, there are no external manifestations in other mutations. However, with motley things are different. Some birds that are only split into this gene have different visual manifestations, such as spots on the back of the head, light claws and paws, strips on the beak, while they should be dark. This often leads to thought, then the motley gene is some kind of dominant. But only the gene, which is manifested in all heterozygous and split birds visually by 100%, can be called dominant. But this does not apply to the variegated, some split birds do not have any signs of a mottled gene, so many experts consider it right to leave this mutation in a recessive mode of inheritance until the opposite is proven.
Cinnamon and Pearl
Pearl and cinnamon corals are two more recessive mutations associated with sex. In detail about this type of inheritance is written in the part about color lutino. In short, this means that if a female carries one of these genes, then visually it will look like one of them. Males can also be split into these mutations and if its pair is not pearl or cinnamon, then you still get the female chicks of these colors. In order to get a cinnamon male it is necessary that each of the parents passes one cinnamon gene to the chick. The same applies to the pearl gene.Although these mutations are inherited equally, each mutation has a completely different effect on the appearance of the bird.
The cinnamon gene in corelles influences the pigment melanin. It does not stop its production, but changes its color from gray to brown. Cinnamon color should not be in shades of gray or other dark shades in any form. The nestling in the nest will have a dark cherry eye color, compared to a normal bird, but by the age of two weeks they will darken and will not differ. Beak, paws and claws do not show a black / gray color, like normal birds, but remain beige / pale brown.The obvious difference between cinnamon and pearl, except brown, is the yellow color. It seems that cinnamon has a much better looking yellow "blush" and thus, in females the mask is yellow, unlike non-cinnamon birds. The males have the same yellow mask as the usual ones, although the females do not have a cinnamon mask, which should be expected in comparison with the gray females. Those. Cinnamon birds have a distinct yellow hue on the mask of the females, as well as on the males' chest.The color of cinnamon will vary not only within the same family of corals, but even within a single bird. Perhaps this is related to health, sunlight, age, etc. For example, a male will look much darker when he grows up and completely moults. The difference between new and old feathers during molting will be obvious, since old feathers could become lighter due to sunlight. Therefore, new feathers will look darker and fuller in color.
The pearl gene in corals does not affect the color pigments in birds, but instead it affects the distribution of the pigments already available. In fact, it reduces the spread of gray pigments and increases the spread of yellow pigments. For some pearl bird feathers, the yellow pigment will form a serrated pattern.You can determine whether the pearl chick is even when it is in the nest. Still growing "needles" of feathers will appear striped or spotty. The pearl mutation is not affected by eye color.Perl chicks before the first molt look the same in both sexes. The spread of yellow pigments gives the female an extra yellow color of the mask, which makes it look like a mask of males. It is interesting that during the first (juvenile) moult, the majority of "pearls" in males of corals is lost. However, this is not quite true. In fact, pearls are covered completely or partially by a gray pigment, the amount of which increases as the bird grows up. The pearl effect remains, but it becomes less noticeable. In strongly pearl males, pearls can only be partially hidden, so that they can be sufficiently clearly visible. The mottled gene also affects the appearance of pearls, but we will consider the fact that the bird is an adult, a pearl male.There are several different variations of the pearl gene. Sometimes pearls are large and clear, and sometimes they look like light lines on feathers. Others have a clear boundary between light and dark tones, although in some they seem to flow into each other. Regardless of how pearls look, this mutation gives the bird a stunning look. It fits perfectly with any other coloring.
White-fronted cocks are a stunning mutation that is very different from all the others in that they do not have orange cheeks and yellow color in general. Males that look more effective than females have a white mask, for which this mutation has its name. The females of this mutation look like young chicks and retain the grayish color of the mask after moulting. They never get a white mask that contrasts with the dark gray of the body. When white faces are combined with other mutations, the birds look even more attractive.The white mutation creates an autosomal recessive gene that stops the production of yellow pigments. The fact that White-faced lacks yellow pigments can be seen even in fledgling chicks. They have, unlike the rest of the mutations, white fluff. In normal chicks fluff is yellow.Some species of parrots call this mutation "blue". Most people know that if you mix blue and yellow colors, you will get green. If the usual parrots "pick" the yellow color, it will remain blue. In the corals, which are not green, but gray, the gene really cleans yellow and orange colors, leaving the bird unaccustomed